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Cataract formation is a natural process of ageing. The crystalline lens in the eye is prone to changes due to age, sunlight, food, diseases and inflammation.The role of lens is to focus the light on to the retina to form abstract visual image. cataract by clouding of lens affects clear visual image formation, hence resuls in dropped vision. Cataract is managed with the help of micro surgery which restores vision. The procedure has good success rate.
- Eye ball structure:
- What Is A Cataract?
What Is A Cataract?
Any object that you see is an image formed by the light afterits entry into the eye.Inside the eye is a crystalline lens that works like a lens in the camera.The lens focuses the light rays coming through the pupil onto the retina. The different parts of the retina collect this light and send a message to the brain,enabling you to see.
For perfect vision the lens should be clear so that light can pass through it without hinderence. When the lens becomes cloudy or opaque, light cannot pass through it and the vision becomes dim or blurred. A cloudy lens is called a cataract. Cataract is not a growth or a film over the eye.
- Causes Of Cataract
Causes Of Cataract
In cataract there is deterioration of the normal structure of the eyes. There may be other causes like diabetes, kidney disease, glaucoma, smoking, eye’s injuries, infections and inflammation inside the eye. Prolonged use of certain medications can also lead to cataract formation.
In the early stages, vision improves by changing glasses, but once the cataract progresses changing glasses does not help.
There will be further deterioration in the ability to see things clearly from distance. Glare while driving or performing activities like reading that require clear vision,colored haloes,double or multiple images in the eye are aassociated symptoms.
Cataract may develop slowly over several years or rapidly within months. Often the other eye will also be affected, but in it may not happen at the same time. There are no medications, eye drops, or dietary restrictions that can cure or prevent cataract formation if the cataract interferes with your regular activities, the only solution is surgery.
- Surgical Techniques
Several techniques are used for removing cataracts. Your doctor will select the method of surgery that is most suitable for your case.
Phaco Emulsification: In this method a tiny instrument is inserted through a very small incision. The instrument uses ultrasound vibrations to break the cataract into fine pieces, which are gently sucked out. The new artificial lens is then inserted into the eye. Usually no stitches are required to close the incision. This minimal surgery allows faster and safer healing, hastening your return to normal activity.
Small incision cataract surgery (SICS): This is a technique where the cataract is removed manually through a small incision. The small incision heals fast and enables early recovery.
- Extra Capsular Extraction:
Extra Capsular Extraction
Here the lens is removed as a single piece through a relatively larger incision. It is replaced with an artificial lens and the incision is closed with fine stitches .The surgeon may opt for this technique in cases where the cataract is very advanced. The recovery period is long here
- Planning for surgery
Planning for surgery
Cataract need not mature fully or the vision to become totally cloudy before scheduling surgery. Your ophthalmologist will decide on the time for the surgery. Be sure to inform your doctor about any medications for blood thinning, diabetes,hypertension & any other long term medications etc that you may be using.
counselors at our hospital will help you to understand the pre-operative procedures and inform about the cost of the procedure selected. Prior to your surgery,some routine tests including blood tests will be done.You can bring only oneattendant; children below 15 years are strictly prohibited in hospital premises unless they are patients.
- Care after surgery
Care after surgery and some important tips
protective glasses or an eye shield should be worn in the day and an eye patch at night to avoid accidental injury. Bath carefully from below your neck but do not wet the operated eye for 15 days. You may gently clean the eyelids with a piece of cotton boiled in water or a sterilized tissue.
- Some important tips
Some important tips
- Do not rub the operated eye.
- Do not use any eye cosmetics until the doctor allows it
- Do not wash your hair until the doctor says you can.
- Shave carefully, soap or water should not enter the eye.
- Avoid any vigorous activity.
- Do not lift heavy things.
- Do not bend so that your head is lower than your waist.
- Avoid sleeping on the operated side.
- Avoid alcoholic beverages.
- Watch television for short periods only.
Please follow the advice of the patient counselor about medication and follow-up visits.
- Be alert for problems
Be alert of problems and report to doctor if you thesymptoms as below
- Any sudden change in vision or blurring of vision
- Increase in sensitivity to light or seeing flashes of light
- Increase in redness
- Swelling of the eyelid or bleeding.
- Nausea or vomiting
- A white or cloudy cornea or pupil
- Secondary cataract
Blurred vision can occur months or years after cataract surgery, leads to the mistaken assumption that the cataract has grown again. This is not a cataract but the clouding of the thin capsular bag membrane. To restore clear vision is restored by using a laser to clear cloudy membrane. This is a simple procedure and is done on an outpatient basis. No stitches or surgery are needed. Your vision should improve soon after the laser treatment.
- Frequently asked Questions
Frequently asked Questions
Many people think cataract have to develop completely before they can be removed. This is longer true. Cataract surgery is a safe and predictable procedure that can be performed at any point of time that your vision interferes with your quality of life.
- What happens if cataract is not treated?
What happens if cataract is not treated?
Over time clouded areas of the lens can become larger and denser, causing your vision to become worse. This could take few months to many years. Eventually, your entire lens can cloud over leading to increased blurred vision, affecting your daily activities.
- How successful is the cataract surgery?
How successful is the cataract surgery?
Cataract surgery has overall success rate of 98% or more. Continuous innovation in techniques and instruments has made the procedure. Simpler and safer than earlier.
- Which is a good technique for cataract surgery?
Which is a good technique for cataract surgery?
Phaco emulsification is a good technique with advantage of micro incision: stitch less, safe and with fast visual recovery.
- When can I resume daily routine?
When can I resume daily routine?
Daily routine work can be resumed after rest of 7 days depending on the working environment ,dusty and stressful environment should be avoided.
- Will I require glasses for distance after cataract surgery?
Will I require glasses for distance after cataract surgery?
In most instances a small refractive error is present after cataract surgery and wearing glasses will make your vision sharper.